Michael Bierut On How To Write Brilliant Essays

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The third stage of knowledge - epistemy, or original knowledge is based on tecnhy. Epistemy is impossible without the previous stage, i.e. tecnhy, and thereby and without empeiria. The person possessing epistemy not only knows why occurs so, but not differently, but at the same time is able to give it to another and consequently it is capable to train.

However the form in Foma's interpretation was set of the general essential signs inherent in things of a certain look, and did not exist out of or to them. Akvinat distinguished three sorts of forms, or universaliya in substances:

The highest level of knowledge is sophia, t.e. wisdom or "the first philosophy". It generalizes knowledge of three previous stages and has the subject of the reason, the highest bases of life, existence and activity. She studies problems of the movement, a matter, substance, expediency, and also their manifestation in single things.

Therefore, on it it is impossible to stop, it is necessary to rise by the following, higher step of knowledge, to tecnhy - art, or ability. It joins first of all any craft, any imitation. Tecnhy is a result of the certain initial generalizations made on the basis of existence and repetition of some phenomena in similar situations.

Like any body of sensory perception the intelligence possesses adequate to, i.e. adapted for the opportunities, object of knowledge which the essence of corporal things, or that in them the general, spiritual is. From such understanding of object of intellectual knowledge Foma draws a conclusion that the intelligence cannot have material, corporal character, and has to be non-material, spiritual.

According to Akvinat, the knowledge is transition of opportunity to the act, a peculiar identification of the learning subject with cognizable object. However the cognizable thing - material object - can be never learned in an exhaustive way. From this it follows that the learning object has to be identified not with a thing as material object, and only with certain its party, i.e. formal object In other words, this identification carries not real, but purely potential character That it could occur, from a single thing has to get to feelings learning its print - an image, or the image. Foma Akvinsky calls these images of material objects in external feelings sensual informative forms - species sensibiles.

In end it would be desirable to notice that now the neotomizm continues to develop, including separate provisions of existentialism, phenomenology, philosophical anthropology and other currents of modern idealism.

Foma borrows categories of a matter (materia) and a form (forma) from Aristotelean metaphysics. He repeats that really there are only single things consisting of a matter and a form. that the matter presents to principium individuationis - an individualization basis that the matter deprived of a form is passive, the nediferentsirovann and cannot exist without it that the form is the active element designing single life which thanks to a form gains ability to changes.

Single things as independent lives consist of opportunity (potentia) and the act (actus). Opportunity or a potentiality is understood as possible life, as the act - life valid, absolutely existing. I.e. more general character, than a form and a matter have categories of opportunity and the act.

Provisions of science cannot contradict articles of belief. Foma claims that rational truth cannot contradict articles of belief that the reason has to confirm these doctrines only. Thus, without denying science value, Akvinat limits its role to interpretation of doctrines of revelation, the proof of their compliance to data of reasonable knowledge. It is useful that the reason was engaged in articles of belief, but "that only did not get a false idea arrogantly, - Foma writes, - that understood them or proved".

We will be forgotten for a minute about present time, we will be transferred mentally to the Middle Ages, to be exact, in XIII eyelids - eyelids when there lived Foma Akvinsky, and will try to open those social and ideological prerequisites which caused emergence of the philosophy called on his name tomizmy.