The hologram restores not the two-dimensional image of a subject, and after the wave disseminated by it. Displacing a supervision point within this wave field, we see a subject under different corners, feeling its dimensions and reality.
The holograms received in the light of the laser with one wavelength reproduce monochrome images. For obtaining the color holograms which are correctly reproducing in the uniform image of a detail of object of different color it is necessary to register and then to reproduce in the elementary case three color-splitted images of object, for example red, green and blue.
As the gearing-up element 4 two crossed diffraction lattices providing equality of intensity of light diffracted in zero and some lateral orders can be used.
Holographic animators of Fourier can be executed according to the scheme with the meeting wave and according to the scheme with the gearing-up element in a flat wave. The second scheme is more preferable, it and we will consider (rice).
The two-level method of holography for the first time allowed to create the microscope registering not only amplitude, but also a phase of the light wave disseminated by object. Emergence of such microscope opened the new opportunities of research of microobjects unattainable by known methods of classical microscopy.
Animation (reproduction of images takes an important place in the production technology of integrated schemes for microelectronics. The multiplication is required when using a group method of production of products, in multichannel systems of information processing, and also in systems of storage and reproduction of information, etc.
The passing hologram can be received with use of the lens forming the reduced image in space. If to place a photographic plate in the plane interfaced to any section of object, for example central or corresponding to the foreground and to light a plate with a basic bunch, on it the passing hologram of the focused image will be registered. It is so possible to make graphic holograms in the form of slides. In a holographic cinema this scheme is a basis for receiving holographic shots.
The method of the compensating hologram can be used for correction of the distortions created not only lens aberrations, but also optically the non-uniform environment sharing object and reception optics (including fiber-optical plaits).
In case of falling under corners φ to each other the distance between interferential strips is defined on a photosensitive layer of two parallel bunches as d = λ/2sin (φ/. At increase in a corner φ and reduction of wavelength λ the distance between strokes decreases. In a limit at φ →π d →λ/Is messages on industrial production of DR with a spatial frequency up to 6000 lines/mm.
In the usual photo only distribution of amplitude (more exact it a square in a two-dimensional projection of object to the picture plane is registered. Therefore, considering the photo under different corners, we do not receive new foreshortenings, we cannot see, for example, that becomes behind subjects, located in the foreground.
Graphic holograms find the increasing application in expositions of the museums. There is also one more aspect of graphic holography - a holographic portrait for which receiving besides above told it is necessary to consider features of pulse lasers and the requirement of safety measures when the scheme of lighting with the disseminating plate and two-phasic record is preferable. But at first we will consider the following subject.
It is possible to compare two schemes of a holographic microscope. Shortcomings of the scheme of direct registration it is possible to call high requirements to resolution of the registering environment and strong influence of spotty structure on quality of the image. In the holographic scheme with use of a microlens for creation of the increased image of a subject of the requirement to resolution are minimum, but the field of vision and depth of the registered space are defined by properties of the applied microlens and are very small.
At registration of holograms of Fresnel use a set of coherent dot sources and a basic source. As a result of their interference on a photographic plate receive the hologram of dot sources - the gearing-up element representing a set of the off-axis holographic lenses "enclosed" in one aperture.